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(i)  All questions are compulsory.

(ii) Read the instructions of question paper carefully and write their answers.

(iii) Questions from 1 to 5 are objective type and compulsory. Each question carries 5 marks. Total marks are 5 x 5 = 25.

(iv) Internal options are given in question from 6 to 24.

(v) Questions from 6 to 10 are very short answer type questions. Word limit is 30 words. Each question carries 2 marks.

(vi)  Questions from 11 to 17 are long answer type questions. Word limit is 75-120 words. Each question carries 4 marks.

(vii)  Questions from 18 to 22 are long answer type questions. Word limit is 120-150 words. Each question carries 5 marks.

(viii) Questions from 23 to 24 are long answer type questions. Word limit is 150-200 words. Each question carries 5 marks.

(ix)Question 18 should be indicated on the outline map to India as directed.


Q.1 Fill in the blanks-

(a) ………………….has an important place in joint Forest Management System.

(b) ………………… State of India ranks first in the production of Soyabean.

(c) The people of Delhi proclaimed …………as the emperor of India.

(d) Dr. Ambedkar was chairman of constitutional……………..

(e) ……………… considered as the father of  Socialism.

Ans.(a) Security committees, (b) Madhya Pradesh, (c) Bahadur Shah Zafar, (d)format committee, (e) Karl Marx


Q.2.  Answer the following in one word or one sentence:

(a)        What are the two industries based on animals in India?

(b)        What was the immediate cause of the war of 1857?

(c)        How many Fundamental Rights are provided to Indian citizen?

(d)       When were banks Nationalised in India?

(e)        When was five year plan implemented in India?

Ans.     (a) (i) Dairy Industry, (ii) Leather Industry                (b) Incident of grease cartridges

            (c)  Six             (d) in 1969                  (e) in 1951      


Q.3.     Match the following pairs:

                        'A'                                                        'B'

(i)         Santa Kruz                  -                                   (a) Mahatma Gandhi

(ii)        Civil Disobedience -                                       (b) 250

(iii)       No. of members of  Vidhan Sabha in M.P. - (c) 320

(iv)       Job Card                                                          (d) Mumbai

(v)        No. of members of Rajya Sabha                                 (e) Registered family

Ans.     (i-d), (ii-a), (iii-c), (iv-e), (v-b)


Q.4. Choose the correct option:

(a) Man made disaster is-

(i) Drought      (ii) Flood         (iii)       Landslide        (iv)       Road accident Ans. (iv)


(b) India-China war was in-

(i) in 1960 A.D.           (ii) in 1962 A.D. (iii)   in 1965 A.D.   (iv)       in 1967 A.D.   Ans. (ii)


(c) Agriculture is included in-
(i) Primary sector (ii) Secondary sector   (iii) Tertiary sector (iv)  Secondary and Tertiary both the sectors    Ans. (i)

(d) The tertiary sectors finds employment-

(i) Directly       (ii) Indirectly  (iii) Directly and Indirectly both  (iv)  None of the above Ans. (iii)


(e) Rail services started in India-

(i) 1853 A.D.   (ii) 1854 A.D. (iii)       1856 A.D. (iv) 1857 A.D.       Ans. (i)


Q.5.     State True or False:

(i) Sources are reduced due to population explosion.

(ii) Consumer protection Act was enacted in the year 1955.

(iii) 24 th December is celebrated as National Consumer Day in India.

(iv). There is no danger to Democracy by unemployment.

(v) "Ag mark" is a mark of Safety for agriculture.

            Ans.     (i) True, (ii) False, (iii) True, (iv) False, (v) True


Q.6  What is meant by Soil Conservation?

Ans.     To control the soil erosion and increase the productivity of soil is called soil conservation.

for soil commotion methods like planting trees, contour forming, making field ridge and grazing land development etc. should be adopted.


Or   Write the name of Soil which is available in India.

Ans. The following six types of soil are found in India: 1. Alluvial soil, 2. Regur or Black soil, 3. Laterite soil, 4. Red soil, 5. Desert soil and 6. Mountain soil.


Q.7 What were the main centers of Struggle of  1857 revolt?

Ans. The place most affected by freedom struggle of 1857 are Awadh, Meerut, Delhi, Kanpur, Suhailkhand, Aligarh, Mathura, Agra, Badayun, Bihar, Rajasthan's Nasirabad, Kota, Jodhpur, Indore, Neemuch, Gwalior of Madhya Pradesh and Jhansi in Uttar Pradesh.


Or  By whom and when was Congress established?

Ans. On 28th December 1885 in Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit college Indian national Congress was formed. There were 72 represtatives in the convention of formation Indian National congress. Under the president ship of Vyomesh Chandra Benarjee. A.O. Hume supported in formation of this political organization.


Q.8      What is national income? How is it calculated? Write.

Ans.     National income is the income of a

country. It is obtained by adding the monetary values of the commodities and services produced in a country in a-year.

Marshal writes- "The labour and capital of the country acting on its natural resources material and immaterial including services of all kinds produce annually a certain net aggregate of commodities. This is the real net annual, income or revenue of the country or the national dividend.


Or  What is ATM?

Ans.     A.T.M. is a system in which money can be withdrawn- at any time. The A.T.M. is made of plastic and consists of a metal chip. On which all the details related to bank accounts are entered. A.T.M. has made the banking function very easy and convenient.


Q.9. What is tertiary sector?

Ans.     Tertiary (Third) sectors: The activities of tertiary sector do not produce goods at its own, but assist in the process of production. For example to sell the goods produced by primary and secondary sectors, trains and trucks are needed to transport them to the whole sale and retail markets, trains and trucks are needed to transport them to the whole sale and retail markets, Godowns are required to store the goods manufacture by industries.

"Thus the activities relating to transport, storage, communication, banks and trade etc. are included in tertiary sector. As the activities of tertiary sector creates services in place of goods and communities, it is also called service sector."


Or  What is primary sector? Give example.

Ans. Primary sector- The activities based directly on natural resources arc called primary sector. Agriculture can be taken as an example. We have to depend, mainly upon natural resources like soil., rain, sunlight, or etc. to grow crops. Therefore agricultural crop is a natural product. In the same way forestry, animal husbandry, mining etc. arc also included in the primary sector.


Q.10. What is Right to information?

Ans. The government has formatted an act "Right to information in the year 2005. This act confirmed the right to get all information of the working activities of government sections.


Or  What is meant by consumer exploitation?

Ans. The process by which a consumer is misleaded and adulterated with someone is called consumer's exploitation.


Q.11. Suggest four measures to check water pollution.

Ans.     Following are the four ways to prevent water pollution:

1. Chemical industries which pollutes the water most should be set up away from rivers and water reservoirs.

2.  Waste water of industries should not be directly disposed off in the rivers.

3.  Water of industries should not only be purified but also used for irrigation.

4. People should not bathe in rivers and should not wash their clothes in rivers.


Or  How many types of industries are there in India? Describe, the industries on the basis of ownership?

Ans.     On the basis of ownership, industries are  classified in four types: (1) Private industries, (2) Government industries, (3) Cooperative industries, (4) Mixed industries.


Q.12    Write any four means of communication.

Ans.     Means of communication are

Verbal Communication: which include conversation and storytelling.

Written Communication: Emails, social media, letters.

Oral Communication: , videoconferencing, voice chat. depends on the speed, volume, pitch, voice modulation, clarity of speech.

non-verbal Communication: to read what is between the lines with written communication and hear the unsaid of verbal communication.

Physical Communication: Body language.


Or        Explain the factors that affect International trade?

Ans.  Factors affecting international trade : International trade is affected by many natural, economic, political and social reasons. Main factors affecting International trade are as under :

(1)  Location: Those countries which are located on the International trade routes, commercially they progress easily.

(2) Rugged sea coast : The Countries where sea coast is there, the ports are very developed and they have adventurous and good sailors.

(3)  Natural resources : The trade of a country is affected by the diversity of its natural resources. They include the climate, forests, cultivable land, agricultural crops, minerals etc. On these resources the production depends.

(4)  Economic development : The level of economic development of different countries is not similar. Countries which are economically advanced their trade is more developed.

(5) Cultural diversity : Culturally all the countries of the world are different from each other.



Q.13    What is meant by Disaster Management? Explain main elements of disaster management.

Ans.     Disasters are unexpected incidents; occurrence of which is beyond the human control. They occur abruptly and hamper the normal human activities. To meet the challenges of such disasters much more needs to be done than the emergency minimum services provided. Disasters are not only the result of natural phenomena but they are closely related with human activities also. Some human activities are directly related with the disaster like the Bhopal Gas tragedy, Chernobit atomic tragedy, wars, Chlorotloro Carbon, releases gases in the atmosphere, green house gases, noise air, water, soil and environmental pollution. Some human activities indirectly affect the environment e.g. lands slides and floods due to destruction of forests. It is a fact that during the last so many years disasters connected with human follows have increased. Efforts to prevent them were also made. But we have succeed only to a limited extent. It is difficult to check natural disasters. Therefore, it is better to minimise their effect and a proper disaster management. Many efforts have been made in this direction. Important steps in this direction are setting up of Indian National Disaster Management Institute, The Summit Conference of May 1994 in Yokohama (Japan) and conferences, seminars etc. on Disaster management.

Disaster management is a chain of activities which are carried out not only before and after the disaster but carried out during the period of disaster also. This arrangement is something more than the expansion and contraction model under this system it is believed that disaster management is efforts to prevent the calamity, minimize its effects, timely action and activities to bring the simation to normalcy; these activities are expanded and contracted as per the emergency, sense of insecurity in the society etc.

Main stages of disaster management Disaster management lays stress on four important things:

1. Advance preparation

2. Action at the time of disaster

3. To restore normalcy and rehabilitation.

4. Plan for preventing the recurrence of the disaster and minimise the ill effects of the disaster.



Or        What is Tsunami? Describe the main causes of Tsunami.

Ans.  A situation of abrupt very high fides in the oceans, which is caused either by earthquakes and/or volcano is called Tsunami.

Earthquakes, eruption from a volcano cause a sudden disturbance in the base of the ocean causing abrupt displacement of oceanic waves.

Normally only one high wave is produced and in due course chain of waves appear on the sea. The speed of the waves is slow in shallow sea and is high in deep sea. In the deep sea, length of the Tsunami waves is more and the height in less. On the shallow shores the waves can be 15 metres high or even more. This results into great disaster on the coastal area.


Q.14 Explain briefly the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Ans.  Non-cooperation movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 A.D. in order to protest against the cruelties committed on the people of Punjab at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar and to redress the injustice done to Turkey. It was purely a non-violent movement. This movement was later on transformed into a mass movement:


Non-cooperation programmes:

(i) Surrender of titles and honorary offices, (ii) Resignation from nominated seats, (iii) Withdrawal of children institutions aided or controlled by the government, (iv) Gradual boycott of the British courts.

Truth and non-violence (Satya and Ahimsa) were to be the guiding principles of the non-cooperation movement.

Thus, the non-cooperation movement played a vital role in the history of India's independence. It taught Indians a new self respect, which could be content with nothing less than self-government.


Or  Name the newspapers published from Madhya Pradesh to arouse awareness for national awakening.

Ans.     1. Dainik Bhaskar (Hindi) 2. Patrika (Hindi) 3. Central Chronicle (English) 4. Nav Bharat(Hindi) 5. Nai Duniya(Hindi)



Q.15    What were the effects of Indo-China war? Write.

Ans.     The effects of Indo-China war were:

The relations between the two countries strained.

A large area of the Indian Territory went in the hands of China

India's international policy and non-aligned policy were harmed.

In the foreign policy of India, realism was considered better than idealism.

There was improvement in the Indo-Amercian relations.



Or  What were the conditions laid down for the `Tashkand Agreement'?

Ans.  Important conditions of  'Tashkand Agreement' were as follows :

(1) Both the countries agreed to build harmonious relations like good neighbors.

(2) Both parties agreed to call back their armies and restore the positions as it was before 5th August 1965. Both the parties will abide by the conditions of cease-fire.

(3) Both parties agreed to abstain from interfering in the internal matter of each other, discourage publicity against each other and restore diplomatic relations.

Besides, it was also agreed that relations between both the countries in the field of economic, commercial and cultural sectors shall be made cordial.


Q.16    Write four characteristics of parliamentary form of government.

Ans.     The federal characteristics present in the Indian Government system are as follows-

1. Dual Governments- In the Indian Union there are both the Governments viz. Union Government and the State Governments. There is an Executive in the Union where there is a council

Minister and there is a Legislature (Parliament) of peoples' representatives. Similarly in the states also there is Executive and Legislature wherein there are Governor and a council of ministers under the Chief Minister, and a Legislative Assembly of Peoples representatives. This arrangement is known as dual form of Government.

2. Division of Powers- There is a division of power between the Union and the States under the Constitution. Accordingly the Centre and the states make laws and run the administration as per the subjects under this Jurisdiction. The powers have been allocated in the Constitution in the following manner-

 Union List- 97 Subjects of national importance are contained in the Union list, in which subjects like Defence, Foreign Affairs, Defence forces, Finance, Communication, Railways are prominent.

State List- 62 Subjects of regional importance like Justice, Police, Education, Agriculture, Social Welfare etc. are in the State List.

Concurrent List- Originally there were 47 subjects in this list but after the 42nd amendment 4 subjects and one more subject were added; this presently there are 52 Subjects. Marriages, divorce, Trusts and Trustees, Forests, wild and Protection of birds, Social Security and Social Insurance, Labour welfare are some important Subjects. Both the Central and State Governments can frame Laws on subjects contained in the Concurrent list but if a law has been enacted by the Central Government, that shall be in force.

Residual Powers- If certain subjects remain over and above the three lists, such subjects shall be with the Union Government.

3. Supremacy and written form of Constitution- Under the Federal form of Government written constitution is a necessity. Constitution is supreme and basic law of the Land. The Union and State Governments follow the Constitution under this System of Governments. To ensure supremacy of the Constitution the procedure of its amendments has been made difficult.

4. Supremacy of Judiciary- Under the Federal form of Government Supremacy of Judiciary is important. The Supreme Court is the protector of the Constitution. Laws framed and decisions taken contrary to the constitution can be declared null and void by the Supreme Court. Necessary provisions have been made in the Constitution to ensure independence of the Judiciary.

5. Two houses of the Legislature- As per Federal form of Government Indian Legislature has two houses. First house is called the Parliament and the Second one is called the Council of States. The Council of States (Rajya Sabha) represents the states. In the Council of states, representatives from States are indirectly elected. Members of Parliament are elected. Members of Parliament are elected directly by the people.



Or        Describe the fundamental duties mentioned in the Constitution.

Ans.     The constitution of India expects the citizens of India :

(1) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national Flag and the National Anthem;

(2) to cherish and follow the nobel ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.

(3) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;

(4) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;

(5) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities, to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of woman;

(6) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.

(7) to protect and improve the natural environments including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures;

(8) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of equity and reform;

(9) to safeguard public property and to adjure violence; and

(10) to serve towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.


Q.17    What is mixed economy? Write its four characteristics.

Ans.     . According to Planning Commission : In mixed economy the private and public sectors are closely related and both works as two constituents of a unit.

In the mixed economy the ownership, control and direction of the industries established under public sectors is hold by the government. Characteristics

Main characteristics of mixed economy are as under:

1. Co-existence of public and private sectors- The significant feature of mixed economy is the co existence of public and private sector.

2. Democratic system- Mixed economy is conducted by democratic method and the tendencies of monopoly and dictatorship are not found in it.

3. Economic planning- Under this, the government decides physical and financial aims for private and public sector.

4. Economic freedom- In this system a limited economic freedom is provided to individual industrialist.


Or        What are the problems created by Globalization.

Ans.     Problems Created by Globalisation : This is not true to say that India has only benefited by globalisation. The reality is this, the globalisation has also created several problems. Following are these problems-

( i) Impact on Small Producers: Globalisation has adversely affected the several small industries of India. Small industries are not capable to compete with goods produced in foreign. As a result several small industries have closed. The conditions of the industries like battery, plastic, toys, tyre, dairy products and edible oil is very poor. Here this is noticeable that in India maximum people get employment in small-scale industries next to agriculture.


(ii) Uncertainty of Employment: Lives of labourers have been greatly affected by globalisation. These days due to growing competition, maximum employers like flexibility in providing employment to labourers. It means that the lobs of labourers are not secure. The factory owners, to minimize the cost, provide temporary employment to the labourers; so that they may not have to pay them salary round the year.

(iii)       Benefit not to all

(iv)       Regional disparities.



Q.18    Show the following on the map of India-

( i) Arabian Sea, (ii) Mumbai, (iii) Chennai, (iv) Delhi, (v) Thar desert



Or        Give the indication of the following seasonal conditions-

            (i) Light of the Sun,    (ii) Rain, (iii) Snow, (iv) Fresh breeze, (v) Thunder storm







Q.19. What were the reasons of conducting Civil Disobedience Movement?

Ans.     See the answer of Q.18 of 2009-A. Ors What impact 'Civil Disobedience Movement' had on Madhya Pradesh. Ans. Civil Disobedience Movement- By declaration of Mahatma Gandhi in April 1930 civil disobedience movement started in all over India. On 6th April Gandhi ji broke the salt law and started Dandi March. From that only in Madhya Pradesh the movement started. Under. the  leadership of Seth Govind Das and Dwarka Prasad Mishra the movements started. In Jungle sathyagraha also people took active part police fired on people who took active part in Jungle Sathyagraha. In provinces also people started breaking the laws under the instructions of Gandhi ji. Young people left the government jobs. Students left the government colleges, women protested against the wine shops. Gradually people started taking active part in demonstrations. Government took every step to suppress people who took part in movements but it was not successful, because the civil disobedience movement was at it high position with great support from various part of India.


Q.20    Who declares the emergency in India and what are its types.

Ans.     Powers have been given to the President of India to declare emergency in the country under emergent conditions (on the advice of the Prime Minister). Normally these are three situations under which emergency can be declared:

(1)        National emergency

(2)        Failure of constitutional machinery in the state

(3)        Financial emergency



Or        Write any five effects of Indo-Pak war of 1965.

Ans.     In 1965 War India won; following were the effects of this war :

(1) Pakistan wanted to solve Kashmir issue by wars but she could not succeed.

(2) Pakistan believed that the muslim population of Kashmir will side with Pakistan but such thing did not happen. India proved that the base of secularism in the country is strong. The moral of the people of India and Indian army was very high and Indian Army fought with indigenous weapons.

(4) The role of the United Nation's role in the Indo-Pak war was important; The United Nation's succeeded in its efforts to restore peace because America and Russia both extended their valuable support to the United Nations.

For Pakistan this war proved fatal; the defeat in the war proved that the army dictatorship has not been effective.


Q.21    What are the functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.

Ans.     Following are the functions of Lok-Sabha speaker:

 (i)The speaker presides over the Meetings of Lok Sabha.

(ii) He maintains discipline in the house and conducts the proceedings (debates, questions) in accordance with the parliamentary rules.

(iii)       He can adjourn and suspend the meetings.

(iv)       He can suspend a member for his misconduct.

(v)        He makes an agenda of the meeting and allots time to each member for his speech.


Or        Write the functions of Governor.

Ans.     functions of Governor :

1.  The governor appoints the Chief Minister who is the leader of the political party with the majority in the assembly. He also appoints the ministers on the recommendation of the Chief Minister.

2. The Governor appoints the Advocate General of the state as well as Chairman of the Public Service Commission and other officers.

3.  The Governor summons the state assembly and can suspend them and adjourn them. He can dissolve the assembly on the advice of the Chief Minister.

4. The Governor can promulgate ordinances when assembly is not in session which has to be got approved by the assembly within 6 months.



Q.22    Explain the measures to remove unemployment in India.

Ans.     The following measures are to be adopted to remove unemployment:

(1) Increase in investment: Government should encourage private and public sector. Problem of unemployment can be removed by investing more amount in public sector. Investment in private sector should be such that labour intensive industries should be encouraged.

(2)  New planning: Preference should be given to short-term plans. New plans should be introduced. Preference should be given to such plans where less investment and more workers are required.

(3) Facility of training: Unskilled and untrained workers should be given training. Facility of training should be provided in training centres. Training should be given how the productivity can be increased by less cost of production. This can remove the .problem of unemployment. Vocational training centres should be set in larges cale.

(4) Control over population: The first and foremost duty of the government is to control the population increase. If the population is controlled the severe problem of unemployment will be automatically solved to some extent.

(5) Development of cottage and small-scale industries:. Small-scale and cottage industries should be encouraged so that with less investment more and more production is possible. More number of workers can be employed with less capital investment. Thus, rural unemployment can be solved by developing cottage and small-scale industries.

(6) Change in educational system: Indian educational system is very defective. It is not at all of practical use or job oriented. It is theoretical. In place of it professional job oriented courses should be introduced.



Or        What are the effects of terrorism on the society? What measures should be adopted to tight terrorism?

Ans.     Effect of Terrorism on society :

1. A sense of insecurity prevails amongst the people.

2. Economic progress is hampered, instead of paying attention towards development activities, the Government has to pay attention towards combating terrorist activities and helping affected families, this adversely affects the government schemes. There is considerable loss of life and property. Innocent people are killed. Public and private property is damaged.

3. Terrorism poses a situation of undeclared war. Some countries are using terrorism as a diplomatic tool.

Measures to check terrorism

(1) Spread of education : Spread of education will help in removing terrorism to some extent. Illiterate people sometimes come under the clutches of terrorists.

By education people can understand the bad effects of Terrorism. And can save themselves from cunning people who exploit them and cheat them.

(2) Develop the feeling of love for nation: Social organisations can fill the hearts of people by love and devotion for nation. Feeling of patriotism can keep people away from the social evil like terrorism. Govt. also should try to develop feeling of love for nation.

(3) Security: It is the duty of the nation that full arrangement should be made for the security of the nation. Military arrangement secret department should become more strict. Police department should also become vigilant.

(4) International efforts: Terrorism is not the problem of India only but it is an international problem so all nations should try to end it. On international level all the nations should stand together and steps should be taken to oppose it strongly. All the nations should stop relations with those nations who encourage the terrorism.

(5) Provide employment to people: Due to need of money many people follow the path of terrorism. In our country many people are unemployed so they can not fulfill their basic needs. In such case they take the path of terrorism. It is thus essential to provide many jobs to new generation people.

(6) Developmental programmes: By developmental programmes activities of terrorists can be checked. There activities are more popular in dense forest areas and undeveloped areas. If these areas are developed and connected with other parts the terrorist activities can be checked to some extent.



Q.23    Explain the contribution of agriculture in Indian Economy.

Ans.     India is an agricultural country. Two-third of its population are farmers or engaged in agriculture. So it is the main stay of economy. The reasons are as follows:

(1) To supply food products to the vast population.

(2) This is the main stay of the 70% of Indian population for earning their daily food and clothing.

Raw materials for industries are supplied by agricultural product like cotton, jute, wool, sugarcane etc.

(4) To produce other agricultural

products like tea, honey, vegetables


Or  Why wild life conservation is necessary? What are the measures of wild life conservation?

Ans.     The meaning of conservation is to use the available resources wisely and not waste them immediately or in a short time. Wild life consists of animals, birds and fishes. Conservation of wild life is necessary to maintain ecological balance.

Special efforts are being made to preserve species of wild life, birds and animals. Steps have been taken by the government for the protection and conservation of wild life. Biosphere reserve has been set up in the Ni1A;ri, which consists of 5500 sq. km. and is spread at the tri junction of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

Another biosphere reserve was set up at Nanda Devi in U.P. Himalayas in 1988. Nokrek in Meghalaya was the third set up. Fourth one in Andaman Nicobar Islands was set up to preserve flora and fauna in a unique way. In each biosphere reserve the main objective is to preserve wild life, the flora and fauna in their natural forms. Our country has 63 national parks, 358 wild life sanctuaries and 35 Zoological gardens covering about 1,30,000 sq km of area.



Q.24    What led to the failure of freedom struggle of 1857.

Ans. The Revolt of 1857 was a great and courageous effort by some Indian patriots to get rid of the foreign rule. But ultimately the British succeeded in suppressing it. There were many causes of the failure of the revolt.

1. Rebels were shorts of modern weapons. Most of them fought with old types of weapons like swords and spears. They were also not organised. The sepoys were, no doubt, brave and fearless but lacked discipline.

2. The rebels were not inspired by high ideals. Most of their leaders fought for their selfish interests.

3. The revolt did not spread in the whole of India. There was no impact of the revolt on Rajputana, Orissa, Bihar, the whole of South of India and most parts of the Punjab. The British

withdrew their forces from these regions and sent them to the other regions to suppress the revolt.

4.  The native rulers helped the British. Most of the native rulers came to the help of the British to suppress the revolt. The rulers of Patiala, Nabha, Jind and Nepal sent their forces to help the British in distress. The Maratha chiefs, Holkar, Sindhia and Gaekwad remained loyal to the British. The Nizam of Hyderbad maintained peace in his state. The assistance given by the Sikh chiefs and the loyalty of the Rajput chieftains and the Gurkhas prevanted the spread of revolt.

5. The rebels had no common leader who could lead all groups of people. The rebels thus could not make common effort. A number of isolated risings without any common plan could not succeed against the powerful British Company.


Or        Explain the causes of emergence of aggressive nationalism.

Ans.     The creation of National consciousness in India was based in Second half of the 19th Century on the following important factors:

(1) Economic Exploitation of India by British. Indian small industries, trade and commerce were totally destroyed by the bad policies of British. British Government was getting raw material from India to England on very cheap rates and readymade goods of England were selling in Indian market at high rates.

(2) Social and Religious Movements. The National Movements had started many social and religious movements earlier to national movements. The Indian leaders tried their best to abolish the caste, creed and social evils like Sati system, miserable conditions of women in society and other evils. Somehow they had got success in that field and at last in the 19th century the national movement towards the struggle for independence was started.

(3) Western Literature and Education. The Indian Educationists who had received English education read the European literature, culture etc and they were impressed by western thoughts. Mills, Herbert Spencer, Milton, Burk, Rousseau, Joseph Mazini etc had given independent thought for the love of country and humanity.

(4) Political Unity. British government had developed the means of transportation, communication, Rail Road etc for their own benefits and good administration for their gain. But it proved to be the great boon for Indian politically united states which were more and small earlier to 19th ceiitury. The British had established

political unity.

(5) Indian Press and literature. The Indian Newspayers and literatures had helped to grow the nationalism and the Britishers behaviour was openly criticised by press which they were exploiting economically, castism and apartheid policy. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee wrote Anand Math' novel and had given national song Vande Matram. Amrit Bazar Patrika (1868), Tribune (1877), Pioneer (1883), Kesari and Maratha etc newspapers led to rise the nationalism. In the same view Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Keshab Chandra Sen, Gokhale, Lala Lajpat Rai, C.Y. Chinta Gandhiji, Nehru, Maithali Sharan Gupta, Jai Shanker Prasad etc conveyed the nationalism man to man in the whole India.